Moutaftsi et al., 2006153 reported that various CD8?+?T-cell epitopes can be predicted in a vaccinia virus WR strain. and recognization of the protective epitope.9 Modern computational design starts as a dynamic force to facilitate structural vaccinology, whereby protein antigens are designed to prepare novel biomolecules with better Olprinone immunological properties.10 Regular progress in vaccine development and diagnostic fields accelerate the broad application of structural Olprinone vaccinology (SV), reverse vaccinology (RV) and antigen recognition technology.11 However, systems biology aids in predicting the host-pathogen interactions, and improves adjuvant capability to provide long-lasting immunity.12 In these novel technologies, rational vaccinology is an innovative and functionally applicable approach to design the potent immunogen for the induction of prolonged protective immunity. With the help of this technology, synthetic peptide vaccine was designed for the treatment of asthma.13 The comprehensive vaccines for viral pathogens such as HIV, influenza and hepatitis C virus may be designed through rational vaccinology Olprinone approach as reported by Burton, 2017.14 Antigen prediction is an important criterion in the process of vaccine development. Vaxi Jen is an online software, based on the alignment-free approach and can directly predict the antigens.15 It is the first online server for alignment-independent prediction of protective antigens. The modern technology of vaccine design also includes reverse vaccinology, which accelerates the process of vaccine development.16 Epitope mapping is also a crucial factor in designing an effective vaccine as it generates vigorous reactions from both B cells and T cells and prediction successfully increases the epitope prediction.17,18 A multi-epitope peptide vaccine was developed to stimulate an effective immune response for the treatment of brucellosis. Ren et al., 201919 prepared a multi-epitope vaccine through bioinformatic tools for evaluating its immune response in mice, and high production of IgG antibodies was observed. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is usually a new term in immuno-informatics and is still in the computational pipeline. It was initially applied to analyze a different class of HIV-1 bNAbs entirely based on 454-sequencing method.20 These antibodies have the feature of targetting only conserved epitopes of the microbes that play a significant role in virulence21 and develops a new area of research to design a vaccine against quickly mutating viruses such as HIV and influenza.22 The proper implementation of computational tools minimizes the various challenges in the field of vaccine development. Computational biology also constitutes side-chain prediction tools to design an antibody and predict its structure.23 Different aspects of multi-graft, multivalent scaffolding, codon Olprinone optimization, and antibodyomics tools to identify and design potential vaccine candidate are also well described. This review provides relevant information about the latest computational tools that are essential for vaccine design since all of them have a unique feature and applcation according to the need of the situation. 2.?Vaccine design: systems biology and structural antigen design Vaccines not only arrest the beginning of different diseases, but also assign a doorway for its elimination and help in reducing the toxicity.24 Systems biology and structure-based antigen design are novel techniques to develop vaccines. A biological system is usually thoroughly analyzed via systematically including diverse areas such as genetics, biology, and chemistry. It gives valuable information about Rabbit Polyclonal to TUBGCP6 the gene, protein, and different metabolic pathway involved in pathogenesis.25 Systems biology collects a massive amount of biological data from the various hierarchical levels. The information about protein expression levels,.