Relative fold changes in FAA, DES and DEA were calculated compared to FAS. 2):A1 Background: Asthma is the most common chronic disease among children and affects 235 million people worldwide . Even though incidence of asthma in South America is probably the highest worldwide, underlying causes and disease phenotypes are poorly defined and may differ to developed countries. Recent evidence in mice  and human being  has recognized a critical windows early in existence where the effects of gut microbial changes (dysbiosis) are most influential in immune development and experimental asthma. Given the variations in gut microbiota between North and South American populations, we targeted to validate our earlier work in a microbially-different human population. Methods: We compared the gut microbiota of 97 babies from your coastal community Las Esmeraldas, Ecuador at 3?weeks of age by 16S sequencing (V4 region) Illumina MiSeq. Subjects were grouped into atopic-wheezers (n?=?27) and settings (n?=?70) based on a pores and skin prick test and wheezing history at 1?year of age. An exact logistic regression model was developed to evaluate the risk associated with the AW group relating to specific medical and epidemiological metadata. Metagenomes were expected from 16S rRNA OTU data using PICRUSt, and classified by function using KEGG Orthology. The concentration of fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) was determined by gas chromatography. Results: Atopy and wheezing at 1?12 months of age was significantly associated with asthma analysis at 5?years (OR 17.8), birth by C-section (OR 3.1), potable water at home (OR 2.7) and in utero exposure to antibiotics (OR 2.9). This phenotype was also significantly associated with eosinophil concentration at 2 and 5?years Desmopressin (p? ?0.05), quantity of episodes of respiratory infections (p? ?0.01), maternal weight with during pregnancy (p? ?0.05), and inversely associated with the quantity of diarrheal episodes by 1?year of age (p? ?0.05). Related to what we had previously found in Canadian babies, atopic-wheezing Ecuadorian babies also show gut microbial dysbiosis at 3?months of age. However, the microbial alterations were different and more pronounced in Ecuadorian babies. Predicted metagenomic analysis showed significant variations in genes involved in carbohydrate and taurine rate of metabolism. Fecal acetate was significantly reduced in atopic wheezers. Ongoing experiments will determine if variations in eukaryome will also be associated with asthma risk with this populace. Conclusions: This study further supports the importance of the microbiota during the 1st 100?days of life, even though characteristics of the microbial dysbiosis and epidemiological associations depend on geographical location. Reduced fecal acetate like a common feature in both populations suggests that different microbial alterations may have related metabolic outcomes. Recommendations 1. Asthma. Geneva: World Health Business; 2011. 2. Russell SL, Platinum MJ, Hartmann M, Willing BP, Thorson L, Wlodarska Desmopressin M, et al. Early existence antibiotic-driven changes in microbiota enhance susceptibility to sensitive asthma. EMBO Rep. 2012;13:440C7. 3. Arrieta MC, Stiemsma LT, Dimitriu PA, Thorson L, Russell S, Yurist-Doutsch Desmopressin S, et al. Early infancy microbial and metabolic alterations impact risk of child years asthma. Sci Transl Med. 2015;7:307ra152. A2 Cellular mechanisms involved in the allergic lung response to the environmental bioaerosol archaea 2016, 12(Suppl 2):A2 Background: Bioaerosols in occupational environments are associated with the development of inflammatory lung diseases . The archaea specie (MSS) is found in high concentrations in poultries, dairy farms and swine confinement buildings bioaerosols (up to 108 archaea/m3) [2C4]. In mice, MSS induces an inflammatory lung response characterized by T cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, and IgG production . However, in order to better understand the potential effect of MSS exposure within the pulmonary health of Rabbit Polyclonal to Cytochrome P450 4F2 workers, further characterization of the immunopathology induced by this archaeon is essential. Methods: Desmopressin Wild-type mice (WT) were exposed to either 3?g (low dose) or 100?g (large dose) MSS by intranasal instillation, three consecutive days a week for 3 weeks. Four days after.