The combination of 100% specificity and the ability to detect viable organisms makes culture the standard for legal applications such as for sexual assault. With the availability of more rapid assays during the 1980s, many laboratories started to use enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) due to its lesser demands on cost, skills, and time required for obtaining the results. tubes. The majority of infection is asymptomatic and goes undetected, with an increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease, and is the leading cause of ectopic pregnancy, tubal factor infertility,1C3 and chronic pelvic pains. In Saudi Arabia, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections is low compared with that in developed countries. Gonococcal and nongonococcal urethritis and genital warts have been reported frequently among Saudis, whereas AIDS, syphilis, and genital herpes are frequently reported among non-Saudis.4 For diagnosis of chlamydia infection, cell culture of urogenital specimens has been considered the ideal method, although few laboratories could offer this, due to its cost and lack of experience in the cell culture technique. Accurate results depend on the proper sample taking, carrying, storage, and interpretation. Although culture is 100% specific for chlamydia (no false positives), there is a growing observation that culture is not 100% sensitive. The combination of 100% specificity and the ability to detect viable organisms makes culture the standard for legal applications such as for sexual assault. With the availability of more rapid assays during the 1980s, many laboratories started to use enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) due to its lesser demands on cost, skills, and time required for obtaining the results. However, these tests were less sensitive, as detection of antibodies in a single serum sample has frequently been found in the absence of active infection. 5 Despite the difficulty of differentiating between previous and current infections, the presence of chlamydia-specific antibody (immunoglobulin [Ig]A) is significantly associated with upper genital tract infection, particularly when the antibody titre is high.6,7 As sensitivity of the ELISA test is low, this can assist but cannot replace direct antigen detection or isolation of the organism by the culture technique. 8 Another widely used rapid simple test is enzyme immunoassay. It does not require any sophisticated equipment and it takes only 30 minutes to be completed. It Lansoprazole sodium is significantly less sensitive and specific than the laboratory-based tests. Reported sensitivities of rapid tests relative to the culture range from 52% to 85% for endocervical swabs, and their specificities are over 95%.9C11 However, rapid tests are not recommended to be used in a low-prevalence population or for asymptomatic women, due to the potential for false positives. Their results should always be confirmed by a laboratory test. More recent and very sensitive nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs), such as polymerase chain reaction and ligase chain reaction, have been used for detection of chlamydia genetic material DNA in cervical and urethral samples.12 A further development is nucleic acid hybridization (DNA-Probe) tests, which also detect chlamydia genetic material DNA. These tests are very accurate but are not as sensitive as the NAATs. Other diagnostic tests include transcription-mediated amplification, which amplifies the ribosomal-RNA; strand displacement amplification; and direct fluorescent antibody tests. Papanicolaou smear is not an option for chlamydia screening, as it has poor sensitivity and poor specificity. Sweden is known to have the best chlamydia screening program in the world.13 In the USA, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have supported a screening program since 1988.14 The phased implementation of a national chlamydia screening program in the UK offers screening for all sexually active women, using NAATs.15 Several studies have reported a decline in chlamydia prevalence after early screening and proper treatment.16C18 The best evidence to date about the effectiveness of screening for chlamydia infection in preventing pelvic inflammatory disease is a randomized controlled trial conducted in Seattle, USA.19 Two Swedish studies have supported its findings.20,21 Selective screening is more cost-effective Lansoprazole sodium than universal screening, although the latter may be indicated when prevalence Lansoprazole sodium of infection is high.22,23 The present research aimed to display Saudi infertile active ladies in Jazan Town sexually, in the southwest region of Saudi Arabia, for possible infection. Individuals and methods The analysis was carried out in Jazan General Medical center using lab facilities in the College or university of Jazan. The analysis covered an interval of just one 1 12 months (from July 1, june 30 2011 Lansoprazole sodium to, 2012). The scholarly research group included all Saudi wedded ladies of major and supplementary infertility, aged between 18 and 40 years, who went to the outpatient gynecology center at Jazan General Medical center for infertility exam over study and decided to participate (authorized Rabbit Polyclonal to NT educated consent). The randomized control group included 100 Saudi wedded women that are pregnant who went to the outpatient obstetrics center for regular antenatal care over study and decided to take part (authorized educated consent). Randomization was completed using the Random Allocation Software program? (produced by Saghaei M, MD, Division of Anesthesia, Isfahan College or university of Medical Sciences, Iran) (Edition 1.0, released on, may 2004). Structured conferences were carried out with all recruited ladies, where they received an.